What is Financial Crime Compliance? Full Guide to FCC

20 March 2024
Financial Crime Compliance, often referred to as FCC, plays a pivotal role in today's financial landscape. But what is financial crime compliance, and why is it so crucial?
A Lady of Justice statue
Financial Crime Compliance, or FCC, is a set of policies, procedures, and practices that financial institutions, such as banks, investment firms, and insurance companies, put in place to prevent and detect financial crimes.

Financial crimes encompass a broad spectrum of illicit activities, including money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud, bribery, corruption, and tax evasion. The primary aim of financial crime compliance is to safeguard the integrity of the financial system by reducing the risk of these crimes occurring within it.

Why is Financial Crime Compliance Important?

Financial crime compliance is crucial for several reasons. Here’s what you need to know:

Protecting the Financial System

By identifying and preventing financial crimes, financial crime compliance helps maintain the stability and reputation of the financial system. This is essential for attracting and retaining investors and customers.

Fighting Illicit Activities

Financial crimes, such as money laundering and terrorist financing, can have severe societal impacts. FCC efforts contribute to countering these activities and protecting the public.

Maintaining Trust

Financial institutions are entrusted with individuals' and businesses' financial assets. FCC helps uphold this trust by ensuring that these institutions operate with integrity and transparency.

Regulatory Requirements

Governments and regulatory bodies impose stringent requirements on financial institutions to install FCC measures. Non-compliance can result in severe penalties and reputational damage.

Global Cooperation

As financial crimes often involve cross-border transactions, international collaboration is essential. Financial crime compliance facilitates cooperation between countries and financial institutions.

How Does This Translate to the Real World?

To illustrate the importance of financial crime compliance, let's examine two real-life cases:

Primark's Alleged Involvement in Forced Labour

In 2014, a report by The Guardian alleged that Primark, a prominent fashion retailer, was purchasing clothes made in forced labour camps and prisons. The report highlighted the complex and often opaque supply chains that many companies operate, making it difficult to trace the origin of products and ensure ethical manufacturing.

Financial crime compliance comes into play in cases like this because it helps prevent companies from inadvertently or knowingly participating in illegal activities. By implementing robust due diligence and monitoring processes, financial institutions can assess the risks associated with their business relationships, such as with suppliers, and take necessary actions to mitigate those risks.

In this case, financial institutions dealing with Primark as a client would need to conduct thorough due diligence to identify any potential links to forced labour or other criminal activities within the company's supply chain.

Here’s the bottom line:

If such links were found, they might be required to end the relationship to avoid complicity in the wrongdoing. This demonstrates how financial crime compliance acts as a safeguard against companies engaging in unethical or criminal practices.

Libor Scandal

The London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor) scandal, which came to light in 2012, is another compelling example of why financial crime compliance is essential. Libor is a benchmark interest rate that impacts financial products worldwide. It was discovered that some of the world's largest banks had been manipulating Libor rates for their benefit.

This manipulation not only undermined the integrity of the global financial system but also had significant consequences for individuals and businesses who relied on Libor-linked financial products. The scandal raised questions about the adequacy of compliance measures within these financial institutions.

In the aftermath of the Libor scandal, regulatory authorities worldwide imposed stricter rules and regulations on financial institutions. Emphasising the importance of transparency, ethics, and compliance. This case underscores the need for robust financial crime compliance programs to prevent and detect such manipulative activities, ensuring that the financial system operates fairly and transparently.

The Regulatory Framework

To understand the regulatory framework of financial crime compliance, we turn to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the UK. The FCA is the regulatory body responsible for overseeing the conduct of financial institutions, including their compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) and anti-terrorism financing (ATF) regulations.

The FCA sets out clear expectations for financial institutions about their financial crime compliance obligations. These expectations include:

Risk Assessment

Financial institutions must conduct a comprehensive risk assessment to identify and understand the financial crime risks they face. This assessment is the foundation on which compliance measures are built.

Policies and Procedures

FCA guidelines require financial institutions to establish and maintain effective policies and procedures for managing financial crime risks. These policies should cover areas like customer due diligence, transaction monitoring, and reporting suspicious activities.

Customer Due Diligence (CDD)

Financial institutions are obligated to conduct CDD on their customers, understanding their identity, business relationships, and the purpose of their accounts or transactions. Enhanced due diligence is required for higher-risk customers.

Ongoing Monitoring

Continuous monitoring of customer transactions and relationships is vital to detect any suspicious activities or changes in risk.

Reporting Suspicious Activities

If financial institutions identify any transactions or activities that raise suspicions of financial crimes, they are obligated to report these to the appropriate authorities.

Training and Awareness

Employees of financial institutions must receive training and be aware of their role in financial crime compliance. Training is vital in ensuring that all employees are vigilant and knowledgeable about compliance requirements.


Financial institutions are required to maintain accurate records of customer due diligence and transactions, making it possible to trace activities and assess compliance.

Cooperation with Authorities

In cases where financial institutions uncover or suspect financial crimes, they must cooperate with law enforcement and regulatory authorities in investigations.

By adhering to these FCA guidelines, financial institutions can build a robust financial crime compliance framework, reducing the risk of involvement in illicit activities and ensuring they meet their regulatory obligations.

The Role of Technology in Financial Crime Compliance

The landscape of financial crime is constantly evolving, and so too are the methods used to combat it. Technology plays a crucial role in enhancing financial crime compliance. Here are a few ways in which technology is making a difference:

Data Analytics

Advanced data analytics tools can sift through vast amounts of financial data to identify patterns and anomalies that may suggest financial crime. Machine learning algorithms can adapt and improve their detection capabilities over time.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain, with its transparent and immutable ledger, has the potential to reduce fraud and money laundering by creating a traceable record of financial transactions.


Regulatory technology, or RegTech, offers solutions that help financial institutions automate compliance processes, reducing the risk of human error and ensuring ongoing adherence to regulations.

Artificial Intelligence

AI is being used to enhance due diligence processes, streamline customer onboarding, and improve transaction monitoring by quickly flagging suspicious activities.

By embracing these technological advances, financial institutions can significantly strengthen their financial crime compliance efforts, improving their ability to detect and prevent financial crimes.

How do you Master Financial Crime Compliance?

Financial Crime Compliance (FCC) is a critical component of the modern financial system, designed to prevent and detect illicit activities that can threaten the integrity and stability of the system. It is essential for protecting the financial interests of individuals and businesses, as well as maintaining trust in financial institutions.

To ensure compliance with FCC regulations, financial institutions must:

  • Conduct risk assessments
  • Establish and maintain policies and procedures
  • Conduct customer due diligence
  • Engage in ongoing monitoring
  • Report suspicious activities
  • Provide employee training
  • Maintain records
  • Cooperate with authorities
Regulatory bodies like the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the UK play a significant role in setting guidelines and expectations for financial institutions in this regard.

Technology is revolutionising the way financial crime compliance is carried out, with tools like data analytics, blockchain, RegTech, and artificial intelligence playing a vital role in enhancing detection and prevention capabilities.

Financial crime compliance is not just a matter of legal obligation; it is a responsibility that shapes the financial landscape, ensuring that businesses operate ethically and transparently while protecting the interests of society as a whole. Stay informed and engaged in the world of financial crime compliance to make a positive impact on the financial world.

You might be wondering where to go from here.

To stay updated and informed about financial crime compliance, consider exploring courses in this area. Redcliffe Training offers valuable courses that can help you better understand and navigate the intricate world of financial crime compliance. Don't miss the opportunity to enhance your knowledge and contribute to a safer and more transparent financial system.


What is the difference between financial crime and compliance?

Financial crime involves illegal activities like fraud, money laundering, and bribery, while compliance ensures adherence to legal and regulatory requirements in the financial industry. Financial crime is unlawful, while compliance is the effort to prevent and detect such crimes.

Is AML the same as compliance?

No, AML (Anti-Money Laundering) is a specific component of compliance. Compliance encompasses a broader range of regulatory requirements and best practices, while AML focuses specifically on preventing and detecting money laundering activities, which is just one aspect of ensuring compliance in the financial industry.
Eager to learn more about FCC? Click below to find out more about  Redcliffe Training’s courses that cover Financial Crime Compliance:

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